Discipline of Virology


Current Research:

  • Hepatitis B and Human Immunodeficiency Virus co-infections in pregnant women in KwaZulu-Natal.N Thumbiran, D Moodley, P Moodley and R Parboosing. Funded from  2012 NHLS Research Trust Grant
  • Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus infection in Infants: KwaZulu-Natal. N.B Mdlalose, P Moodley and R Parboosing. Funding by  2012 NHLS Research Trust Grant
  • Impact of HIV, Antiretroviral Therapy and TB Genotype on Survival in MDR TB. Umesh Lalloo , Willem Sturm, Pravi Moodley Anthony Moll, Theo van der Merwe, Neel Gandhi, Gerald Friedland, N. Sarita Shah, James Brust, Claudio Marra. Funding from NIH.
  • HIVDR prevalence in adults on ART in Gauteng Province and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province in collaboration with National Department of Health (NDOH), National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD),National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) ,University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN),South Africa U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Funding from CDC.
  • Evaluation of referrals for Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Treatment Failure in a Public Access paediatric ART Program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. R Bobat, M Archary and P Moodley.
  • Epidemiology of HIV, HAV, HCV and HBV in KZN. N Tathiah, P Moodley, R Parboosing.
  • Epidemiology of Paediatric HCV. R Bobat, M Archary, P Moodley, and R Parboosing. Funding from Department of Virology.
  • Prevalence of HDV in KwaZulu-Natal. P Moodley, R Parboosing and L Singh. Funded from  2012 NHLS Research Trust Grant



  • A Post-Partum Single-Dose TDF/FTC Tail Does Not Prevent the Selection of NNRTI Resistance in Women Receiving Pre-Partum ZDV and Intrapartum Single-Dose Nevirapine to Prevent Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission, Reshmi Samuel, Roger Paredes, Raveen Parboosing, Pravi Moodley, Lavanya Singh, Anneta Naidoo, and Michelle Gordon, J. Med. Virol. 9999:1-6, 2015.
  • Cell based assays for assessing Toxicity: A Basic Guide. Parboosing R, Mzobe, G, Chonco, L; Moodley, I, Current Medicinal Chemistry 2015
  • A systematic review of hepatic tuberculosis with considerations in human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Andrew J Hickey Lilishia Gounder, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Paul K Drain. BMC Infectious Diseases, 15:209
  • Challenges in the Management of Disseminated Progressive Histoplasmosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in Resource-Limited Settings. Richard A. Murphy, Lilishia Gounder, Thandekile C. Manzini, Pratistadevi K. Ramdial, Carmen Castilla, and Mahomed-Yunus S. Moosa. Open Forum Infectious Diseases. DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofv025, 16/01/2015
  • Urine lipoarabinomannan to monitor antituberculosis therapy response and predict mortality in an HIV-endemic region: a prospective cohort study. Paul K Drain, Lilishia Gounder, Anneke Grobler, Faieza Sahid,Ingrid V Bassett, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006833. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006833
  • Comparison of Illumina and 454 Deep Sequencing in Participants Failing Raltegravir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy. Jonathan Z. Li1*, Brad Chapman2, Patrick Charlebois3, Oliver Hofmann2, Brian Weiner3, Alyssa J. Porter2,Reshmi Samuel1,4, Saran Vardhanabhuti2, Lu Zheng2, Joseph Eron5, Babafemi Taiwo6, Michael C. Zody3,Matthew R. Henn3, Daniel R. Kuritzkes1, Winston Hide2, and the ACTG A5262 Study Team.  PLOS ONE  1 March 2014  Volume 9  Issue 3 e90485
  • Kiepiela P, Manasa J, Moosa MY, Moodley P, Gordon M, Parikh UM , Sunpath H, de  Oliveira T,  Ramjee G. HIV Drug Resistance Patterns at the Epicentre of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa 2003-2013. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014; 5(5):299. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000299
  • Hunt G, Dokubo EK, Moodley P, de Oliviera T, Kalimashe M, Dube N, Radebe F, Erasmus L, Tavuka S, Deyde V, Morris L, Raizes E. Surveillance of acquired HIV drug resistance in adult and paediatric patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Antiviral Therapy. 2014; 19 (Suppl 1):A62 
  • Tathiah N, Parboosing R, Singh L,  Jinabhai CC, Moodley P. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B or C co-infection in KwaZulu-Natal: a retrospective analysis of a laboratory database. South Afr J Infect Dis.  2014;29(1):19-22
  • Smith S-J, Nimmo C, Fredlund V, Moodley P. Early infant diagnosis of HIV and fast initiation of anti-retroviral therapy in a rural African setting: how well are we doing? Paediatrics and International Child Health. 2014 ; 34 (3):203-207
  • Thumbiran NV, Moodley D, Parboosing R, Moodley P. Hepatitis B and HIV co-infection in pregnant women: Indication for routine antenatal hepatitis B virus screening in a high HIV prevalence setting. S Afr Med J. 2014; 104(4):307-309.
  • Minority HIV-1 Drug-Resistant Mutations and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission: Perspectives for Resource-Limited Countries, Reshmi Samuel1, Roger Paredes2,3,4,5, Raveen Parboosing1, Pravi Moodley1 and Michelle Gordon6 1Department of Virology, National Health Laboratory Service, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 2IrsiCaixa AIDS Research, Institute, Badalona, Catalonia, Spain; 3HIV Unit, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Catalonia, Spain; 4Universitat Autònoma
  • de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 5Universitat de Vic, Vic, Catalonia, Spain; 6Department of Virology, HIV Pathogenesis Programme Laboratory, Nelson R Mandela Medical School, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, AIDS Rev. 2014;16:187-98
  • Synthesis, 68Ga-radiolabeling and preliminary in-vivo assessment of an depsipeptide-derived compound as a potential PET/CT infection imaging agent,” by Botshelo Mokaleng, Thomas Ebenhan, Suhas Ramesh, Thavendran Govender, Hendrik Gert Kruger, Raveen Parboosing, Puja Hazari, Anil K. Mishra, Biljana Marjanovic-Painter, Janrijn Zeevaart and Mike Machaba Sathekge Biomed Research International 2014
  • SASA Guidelines for Infection Control in Anaesthesia in South Africa 2014,  Raphael Samuel, Chair, Anaesthesia, Dorinka Nel, Anaesthesia,  Ivan Joubert, Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Johann De Bruin, Anaesthesia, Sean Dwyer, Anaesthesia, Adolf Fourie, Anaesthesia, Sailuja Naidu, Anaesthesia,  Reshmi Samuel, Virology,  Yacoob Coovadia, Microbiology, South Afr J Anaesth Analg S5 2014:20(3)(Supplement 1)
  • Kania D, Ottomani L, Meda N, Peries M, Dujols P, Bolloré K, Rénier W, Viljoen J, Ducos J, Van de Perre P, Tuaillon E. Performance of two real-time PCR assays for hepatitis B Virus DNA Detection and quantitation. J Virol Methods 2014 Jun;201:24-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.01.015. Epub 2014 Feb 18.
  • Manasa J, Danaviah S, Pillay S, Padayachee P, Mthiyane H, Mkhize C, Lessells R, Seebregts C, Tobias F, de Wit R, Viljoen J, Katzenstein D, de Oliveira T. An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings. J Vis Exp. 2014 Mar 30;(85). doi: 10.3791/51242.
  • Cames C, Cournil A, de Vincenzi I, Gaillard P, Meda N, Luchters S, Nduati R, Naidu K, Newell ML, Read JS, Bork K; The Kesho Bora Study Group. Postpartum weight change among HIV-infected mothers by antiretroviral prophylaxis and infant feeding modality in a research setting. AIDS. 2014 Jan 2;28(1):85-94. doi: 0.1097/01.aids.0000433243.24481.c3. 


  • Moodley P, Parboosing R, Moodley D. Reduction in Perinatal HIV infections in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in the era of more effective PMTCT Interventions (2004-2012). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. Mar 26 2013.
  • Raveen Parboosing, YuanYuan Bao, Ling Shen, Catherine A. Schaefer, Alan S. Brown. Gestational Influenza and Bipolar Disorder in Adult OffspringGestational Influenza and Bipolar Disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013:1-8.
  • Lavanya Singh, Raveen Parboosing, Justen Manasa, Pravi Moodley and Tulio de Oliveira High level of HIV-2 false positivity in KwaZulu-Natal province: A region of South Africa with a very high HIV-1 subtype C Prevalence; Journal of Medical Virology; Jun 2013
  • Infection control in anaesthesia in regional, tertiary and central hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal. Part 1: Unsafe injection practices among anaesthetists, Samuel RA, Gopalan PD, Coovadia Y,Samuel R, South Afr J Anaesth Analg 2013;19(1):68-70
  • Infection control in anaesthesia in regional, tertiary and central hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal. Part 2:  Equipment contamination, Samuel RA, Gopalan PD, Coovadia Y,Samuel R, South Afr J Anaesth Analg 2013;19(3):146-151
  • Infection control in anaesthesia in regional,tertiary and central hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal. Part 3:  Decontamination practices, Samuel RA, Gopalan PD, Coovadia Y,Samuel R, South Afr J Anaesth Analg 2013;19(4):204-211
  • Recurrent giant molluscum contagiosum immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in an HIV-infected South African Male.  Paul K Drain, Anisa Mosam, Lilishia Gounder,Bernadett Gosnell, Thandekile Manzini and Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa.  Int J STD AIDS Online First,  July 19, 2013
  • Mange A, Tuaillon E, Viljoen J, Nagot N, Bendriss S, Bland RM, Newell ML, Van de Perre P, Solassol J. Elevated concentrations of milk ß2-microglobulin is associated with increased risk of breastfeeding transmission of HIV-1 (Vertical Transmission Study). J Proteome Res. 2013 Dec 6;12(12):5616-25. doi: 10.1021/pr400578h. Epub 2013 Nov 5. 
  • Sartorius BK, Chersich MF, Mwaura M, Meda N, Temmerman M, Newell ML, Farley TM, Luchters S, The Kesho Bora Study Group. Maternal anaemia and duration of zidovudine in antiretroviral regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission: a randomized trial in three African countries. BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Nov 6; 13:522. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-522.
  • Ouedraogo DE, Makinson A, Vendrell JP, Casanova ML, Nagot N, Cezar R, Bollore K, Al Tabaa Y, Foulongne V, Badiou S, Viljoen J, Reynes J, Van de Perre P, Tuaillon E. Pivotal role of HIV and EBV replication in the long-term persistence of monoclonal gammopathy in patients on antiretroviral therapy. Blood. 2013 Oct 24;122(17):3030-3. doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-12-470393. Epub 2013 Aug 12. 
  • Tanser F, Jones KG, Viljoen J, Imrie J, Grapsa E, Newell ML. Human Papillomavirus seropositivity and subsequent risk of HIV acquisition in rural South African women. Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Jul;40(7):601-6. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3182918578.
  • Malaza A, Mossong J, Bärnighausen T, Viljoen J, Newell ML. Population-based CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment coverage. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 23;8(7):e70126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070126. Print 2013.
  • Iwuji CC, Orne-Gliemann J, Tanser F, Boyer S, Lessells RJ, Lert F, Imrie J, Bärnighausen T, Rekacewicz C, Bazin B, Newell ML, Dabis F, ANRS 12249 TasP Study Group. Evaluation of the impact of immediate versus WHO recommendations-guided antiretroviral therapy initiation on HIV incidence: the ANRS 12249 TasP (Treatment as Prevention) trial in Hlabisa sub-district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2013 Jul 23;14:230. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-14-230.
  • Cournil A, De Vincenzi, Gaillard P, Cames C, Fao P, Luchters S, Rollins N, Newell ML, Bork K, Read JS, The Kesho Bora Study Group. Relationship between mortality and feeding modality among children born to HIV-infected mothers in a research setting: the Kesho Bora Study Group. AIDS. 2013 Jun 19;27(10):1621-30. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835d5226.
  • Bork K, Cames C, Cournil A, Musyoka F, Ayassou K, Naidu K, Mepham S, Gichuhi C, Read JS, Gaillard P, de Vincenzi I; The Kesho Bora Study Group. Infant feeding modes and determinants among HIV-1-infected African Women in the Kesho Bora Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Jan 1;62(1):109-18. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318277005e.
  • Ouedraogo DE, Bollore K, Viljoen J, Foulongne V, Reynes J, Cartron G, Vendrell JP,  Van de Perre P, Tuaillon E. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant. J Med Virol. 2014 May;86(5):851-6. doi: 10.1002/jmv.23858. Epub 2013 Nov 22.
  • Infection control in anaesthesia in regional, tertiary and central hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal. Part 1: Unsafe injection practices among anaesthetists, Samuel RA, Gopalan PD, Coovadia Y, , Samuel R.South Afr J Anaesth Analg 68-70 2013;19(1)
  • Parboosing R, Bao Y, Shen L, Schaefer CA, Brown AS. Gestational Influenza and Bipolar Disorder in Adult Offspring Gestational Influenza and Bipolar Disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013:1-8.
  • Lavanya Singh, Raveen Parboosing, Justen Manasa, Pravi Moodley and Tulio de Oliveira High level of HIV-2 false positivity in KwaZulu-Natal province: A region of South Africa with a very high HIV-1 subtype C Prevalence; Journal of Medical Virology; Accepted for publication


  • Nceba Gqaleni, Mlungisi Ngcobo, Raveen Parboosing, and Anneta Naidoo. In Vitro Testing of African Traditional Medicines for Cytotoxic, Immune Modulatory and Anti-HIV Activities Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2012;9(3S):2-11 Parboosing, R.; Maguire, G.E.M.; Govender, P.; Kruger, H.G., Nanotechnology and the Treatment of HIV Infection. Viruses 2012, 4, 488-520.
  • Pawar, S.A.; Jabgunde, A.M.; Govender, P.; Maguire, G.E.M.; Kruger, H.G.; Parboosing, R.; Soliman, M.E.S.; Sayed, Y.; Dhavale, D.D.; Govender, T., Synthesis and molecular modeling studies of novel carbapeptide analogues for inhibition of HIV-1 protease. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2012.
  • Makatini, M.M.; Petzold, K.; Arvidsson, P.I.; Honarparvar, B.; Govender, T.; Maguire, G.E.M.; Parboosing, R.; Sayed, Y.; Soliman, M.E.S.; Kruger, H.G., Synthesis, screening and computational investigation of pentacycloundecane-peptoids as potent CSA-HIV PR inhibitors. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
  • Haddow LJ, Moosa MYS, Mosam A, Moodley P, Parboosing R, Easterbrook PJ. Incidence, Clinical Spectrum, Risk Factors and Impact of HIV-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in South Africa. PLOS ONE. 2012;7(11):e40623.
  • Ndirangu J, Viljoen J, Bland RM, Danaviah S, Thorne C, Van de Perre P, Newell ML. Cell-Free (RNA) and Cell-Associated (DNA) HIV-1 and Postnatal Transmission through Breastfeeding. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51493. doi: 10.1371/jornal.pone.0051493. Epub 2012 Dec 28.  The Kesho Bora Study Group. Maternal HIV-1 progression 18-24 months postdelivery according to antiretroviral prophylaxis regimen (triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis during pregnancy and breastfeeding vs zidovudine/single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis): The Kesho Bora randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Aug;55(3):449-60. Epub 2012 May 9.
  • Van de Perre P, Rubbo PA, Viljoen J, Nagot N, Tylleskär T, Lepage P, Vendrell JP, Tuaillon E. HIV-1 reservoirs in breast milk and challenges to elimination of breast-feeding transmission of HIV-1. Science Translational Medicine. 2012 Jul 18;4(143):143sr3.
  • Ndlovu BG, Danaviah S, Moodley E, Ghebremichael M, Bland R, Viljoen J, Newell ML, Ndung’u T, Carr WH. Use of dried blood spots for the determination of genetic variation of interleukin-10, killer immunoglobulin-like receptor and HLA class-1 genes. Tissue Antigens. 2012 Feb;79(2):114-22. 


  • Pratistadevi K. Ramdial ,Yetish Sing , Julian Deonarain ,Bhugwan Singh , Laveen Allopi ,Pravikrishnen Moodley. Periampullary Epstein-Barr virus–associated myopericytoma. Human Pathology.2011
  • Dhayendre Moodley, Tonya Esterhuizen, Logan Reddy, Pravi Moodley, Bipraj Singh, Linda Ngaleka, and Devan Govender. Incident HIV Infection in Pregnant and Lactating Women and Its Effect on Mother-to-Child Transmission in South Africa. JID,2011.
  • Tathiah, N., R. Parboosing, et al. (2011). “HIV and Serum Protein Electrophoresis Patterns In Kwazulu Natal: A Retrospective Study.” Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 12(1): 24-26.
  • Maya M. Makatini, Katja Petzold,  Shimoga N. Sriharsha, N Ndlovu, Mahmoud E. S.Soliman, Bahareh Honarparvar, Raveen Parboosing, Anneta Naidoo, Per I. Arvidsson, Yasien Sayed, Patrick Govender, Glenn E. M. Maguire,Hendrik G. Kruger,  and Thavendran Govender. Synthesis and Structural Studies of Pentacycloundecane-based HIV-1 PR Inhibitors: A Hybrid 2D-NMR and Docking/QM/MM/MD Approach. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (Jun 7 2011)
  • R. Parboosing, A. Naidoo, M. Gordon, M. Taylor, and V. Vella. Resistance to Antiretroviral Drugs in Newly Diagnosed, Young Treatment-Nai¨ve HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Medical Virology (July 7 2011)